The project involved a series of activities aimed at developing and harmonising local capacities for tsunami early warning. The following is a summary of the completed activities, with links to relevant news items and outputs.
1. Systematic and narrative review published on local dissemination in the downstream of tsunami early warning
The UK team completed a systematic and narrative review of local dissemination in the downstream of tsunami early warning. This was carried out to develop a better understanding of tsunami early warning at the local level. This includes the key actors, and stages or pathways involved in local dissemination, communication channels and the role of social media in local dissemination, as well as gaps and challenges encountered in recent years, and potential strategies to improve localisation of tsunami early warning. The review provided a state-of-the-art review, drawing upon published international studies and guidance published between 2005 and 2021. The review also informed the development of a conceptual framework that provided a basis for further empirical investigations in Indonesia. The review uncovered the types of challenges and limitations uncovered by previous studies. The review is being published as part of a journal article. Final publication details will be added in due course.
2. A downstream capacity assessment framework based on case studies in Denpasar Bali, Nusadua Bali and Padang, West Sumatra
2.1 Survey and focus groups in Padang
In November 2021, the ITB team were able to carry out fieldwork in Padang. This included a survey at the community level, and also a stakeholder engagement/focus group discussion in Padang City with 30+ participants from 12 local agencies including BPBD Kota Padang, KOGAMI, ORARI Kota Padang, KSB Parupuk Tabing, TES Nurulhaq, KSP PRP Tabing, Jemari Sakato, PMI Kota Padang, KSB SMA Pertiwi, RAPI, TAGANA, F-PRB Padang.
2.2 Field observations and public engagement event in Bali
In January and February 2022, the ITB research team were also able to carry out fieldwork in Bali, including field observations and a focus group discussion on ‘Community Capacity in the Warning Chain of Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System’.
The public engagement focus group had 30 participants from 19 local community-based organisations involved in tsunami disaster risk reduction activities, community evacuation planning, including community based early warning system. This included representatives from Komunitas Sahabat Teluk Benoa, Peduli Mangrove, Lurah Tanjung Benoa, Peninsula, Kasi Pemb Kel, Staf Kelurahan, Paiketan Krama Istri, Pecalang, Forum Pendatang, Bakamda Tengkulung, Pemuda Tengkulung, Sekretaris Desa, Pecalang, LPM, Kaling, Kasi Pem, Kasi Sosial, Kaling, and FPRB.
The Bali study also involved field visits to areas for tsunami evacuation and disaster risk reduction initiatives and efforts. This included a visit to the Bugis Village that was undergoing a routine cleaning programme, and the Peninsula Bay Hotel, which has 3 rooms with an identified capacity for 500 people.
As part of fieldwork in Tanjung Benoa, Bali, Dr Harkunti Rahayu and her team visited an Elementary School to see how tsunami early warning is embedded in local education.
The team also visited a Mangrove Forest in Tahura Ngurah Rai, exploring the potential for nature-based solutions to dissipate wave energy from tsunami, and to Banjar Desa Adat Kertha Pascima (Meeting Place of Traditional Village), to see how local knowledge can be used to enhance early warning effectiveness.
On 28 May 2022 Tanjung Benoa Village, the focus of the project’s fieldwork in Bali, received UNESCO IOC Tsunami Ready recognition during the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction 2022, held in May. The village became the first Tsunami Ready community in Indonesia. As the first recognized Tsunami Ready Community in Indonesia and the third in the world after Venkratrainur and Noliasahi in India, the Vice Governor of Bali expects Kelurahan Tanjung Benoa to be a good example for other tsunami prone communities in Indonesia.
2.3 Expert interviews with key agencies and international experts
In June 2021, the ITB team conducted interviews with key agencies (BMKG and BPPT Jakarta) to explore the barriers and enablers for the next generation of TEW dissemination.
The project was discussed by Dr Rahayu at the Intersessional Meeting of the ICG/IOTWMS (item WG1 2020.2), under action items of ICG/IOTWMS Working Group 1 Tsunami Risk, Community Awareness & Preparedness, to gather inputs from international experts linked to the regional tsunami warning system (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewEventAgenda&eventID=3300).
Dr Rahayu and Professor Amaratunga also contributed to the discussions on the strategic pathway for further international cooperation for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning & Mitigation System within the UN Decade for Ocean Science, in protecting communities from the world’s most dangerous waves. The core aim of the discussions were to develop a framework for action on a “Tsunami Dedicated Decade” under the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030).
3. Regional capacity building for end user agencies, in cooperation with IOC-UNESCO IOTWMS Working Group 1
3.1 Lessons learned from local and indigenous knowledge shared at an international webinar organised by UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
At a major international webinar, Dr Harkunti Rahayu, from the Institute Technology Bandung, gave a presentation about what we learned from local and indigenous knowledge from previous events. The presentation covered lessons from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2018 Sunda Straits Tsunami, distinguishing between seismic and non-seismic tsunami events. Dr Rahayu concluded with some of the key issues, challenges and potential solutions.
The event contributed to the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021-2030, a ‘once in a lifetime’ opportunity to create a new foundation across the science-policy interface to strengthen the management of our oceans and coasts for the benefit of humanity.
3.2 Project contributes to meetings of ICG/IOTWMS Working Group 1, Tsunami Risk, Community Awareness and Preparedness, and Task Team on Tsunami Preparedness Near-Field Tsunami Hazard
Progress in the project was reported at the July 2022 meeting of Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWMS) Working Group 1, Tsunami Risk, Community Awareness and Preparedness, which is Chaired by Dr Harkunti Pertiwi Rahayu. Among other responsibilities, the working group, is responsible for assisting, developing and strengthening the overall capacity and capability of Member States in tsunami risk assessment and mitigation, community awareness and preparedness.
Progress in the project was also reported at the August 2022 meeting of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWMS) Task Team on Tsunami Preparedness for Near-Field Tsunami Hazards, which is Chaired by Dr Mahmood Reza Akbarpour Jannat from Iran, along with Vice Chair, Mrs. Weniza from Indonesia. The Task Team is especially relevant to the project, as it assists Member States threatened by a near-field tsunami threat to adapt and integrate their national warning chains and SOPs, particularly in relation to community preparedness for self-evacuation. It also guides the implementation of Indian Ocean Tsunami Ready Recognition Programme in the IOTWMS Member States with a near-field tsunami threat.
3.3 Policy engagement and knowledge exchange
- Professor Richard Haigh contributed to The Royal Society’s ‘The UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development – science we need for the ocean we want’ initiative. Further information and a copy of the report can be accessed at: https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2021/ocean-decade-workshop/
- On 17th February 2022, Dr Harkunti Rahayu met with Alok Sharma, President of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference, and His Excellency, Owen Jenkins, British Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia.
- The project was featured in the British Council stand at the 14th edition of the European Development Days on The Green Deal for a Sustainable Future. The 2021 EDD took place on 15 – 16 June 2021 and was fully digital: https://eudevdays.eu.
- Professor Haigh contributed to UKRI’s COP26 engagement, which also features on UKRI’s YouTube channel. This Newton Prize project is mentioned alongside the team’s other work in Indonesia: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4FeyKLMBTs
- The localisation of tsunami early warning research was presented as part of the seventh session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, which took place from 25 to 27 May 2022 in Bali, Indonesia. It was co-chaired by H.E. Prof. Muhadjir Effendy, Coordinating Minister for Human Development and Cultural Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia, and Ms. Mami Mizutori, Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction. Organized in a hybrid format, the Global Platform had over 4000 participants from a total of 185 countries.
- The project was presented at the International Symposium on Multi-Hazard Early Warning and Disaster Risk Reduction: To promote the availability and application of research, science and technology to support implementation of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Thirty-two national, regional and international agencies responsible for tackling disaster risk and over 2,500 participants attended the event.The event was held virtually on 14th to 16th December 2020. Professor Amaratunga Chaired the event and Dr Rahayu delivered a keynote on “People-Centered Early Warning System in the Face of Near Field Tsunami”. Professor Haigh Chaired Plenary Session 1: Science, Policy and Practice Nexus for Risk Analytics, Early Warning Systems and Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs): Perspectives from the Asian Countries. http://cabaret.buildresilience.org/2020_Symposium/Plenary-Session-1.html, organised in collaboration with the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center. The project was acknowledged as a partner in the organising of the event: http://cabaret.buildresilience.org/2020_Symposium/index.html.
- Professor Richard Haigh chaired a panel discussion at International Symposium on Improving preparedness and response for multi-hazard scenarios in Colombo, Sri Lanka on Tackling the complexity and interdependencies of systemic disaster risk. The panel discussion considered how current approaches to disaster risk reduction are being challenged in a world of more frequent and compounding hazards.
- Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga was the Chief Guest and delivered a keynote address at the International Conference on Challenges to Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilient Habitat, which was held in collaboration with the National Institute of Disaster Management, Government of India, International Geographical Union Commission on Hazard and Risk, UNDRR, Centre for Disaster Management Studies, and University of Delhi.
- On 31st May 2022, Dr Harkunti Rahayu joined other distinguished guests at an event in Jakarta, held to celebrate the 96th Birthday of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The event was hosted by the British Ambassador HE Mr Owen Jenkins, who has been following the Newton Prize research on localisation of tsunami early warning since its inception.
- Dilanthi Amaratunga contributed an article to the RICS Land Journal on how climate change affects coastal regions. The article briefly discusses the evidence of coastal climate change and examines some of the physical, social, economic, environmental and built environment impacts. In local dissemination of Tsunami early warning, it is imperative to look at the issues in local coastal communities to develop nature-based/community-based solutions for effective local warning dissemination and evacuation. The full article can be viewed at: https://ww3.rics.org/uk/en/journals/land-journal/how-does-climate-change-affect-coastal-regions-.html
- Dr Harkunti Rahayu contributed to a short film produced by the Antara Network in Indonesia. In the film, Dr Harkunti discusses the importance of disaster mitigation in tackling the threat posed to communities in Indonesia by different hazards. The film was recorded as part of education efforts in Indonesia, and Dr Harkunti appeared as one of four resource persons. The video can be viewed at: https://m.antaranews.com/video/3012729/mata-indonesia-belajar-dari-bencana-eps1
- Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga was a guest speaker at the launch of the Tsunami Ready Community Programme in Sri Lanka. The initiative is being led by the State Ministry of Disaster Management and Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka. The Global Disaster Resilience Centre at the University of Huddersfield is a partner. This discussion on piloting the Tsunami Ready programme took place on 20th April 2022, and was opened by Major General (Ret’d) Fernando, Secretary to the State Ministry of Disaster Management, and Major General (Ret’d) Sudantha Ranasinghe, Director General of the Disaster Management Center.
- Dr Harkunti Rahayu participated in the National Disaster Preparedness Day conducted on April 26, 2022 in Yogyakarta Special Provinces. Dr Harkunti Rahayu was invited by the Mayor of Bantul Regency, together with Secretary General of BNPB, to provide a general lecture and discussion on DRR and Preparedness for the 150 volunteers who were participating on the Disaster Prepared Day activity.
In July 2022, the project team presented a report to the Sri Lankan Disaster Management Center that identified specific findings for the country from a region-wide survey that was conducted to better understand local responses in tsunami warning services, evacuation, and sheltering to COVID-19. The report focused on the responses from Sri Lanka and also looked to understand the uptake of the Guidelines for Tsunami Warning Services, Evacuation, and Sheltering during COVID-19, which were issued by the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWMS) in June 2020.
4. A research publication workshop for researchers in Indonesia working on disaster risk reduction and related fields
An online workshop was organised on 10th and 11th June 2021 for Indonesian doctoral students and researchers working in disaster risk and related subjects, who were new to publishing or wish to refresh their skills. 118 researchers participated, with 61% female. The event involved a 2 half-day workshop and a publication surgery with flexible 1-hour appointments over 5 days. The programme included short lectures, expert panel discussion, group discussions, Q&A, 1-to-1. Sessions were recorded and archived for future reference. Supporting materials are also available electronically. Skills developed during the workshop included:
- Develop writing skills and confidence writing for journals
- Understand editorial processes and what editors look for in papers
- Understand bibliometrics, quality and impact indicators
- Learn best practices for submitting a paper and completing a peer review
Huddersfield colleagues who participated included Professor Amaratunga and Professor Haigh, Dr Dias and Dr Jayakody. Interventions from ITB colleagues were given by Dr Rahayu and Professor Haryo Winarso from the School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development. Professor Winarso is Head of Urban Planning and Design Research Group and has research interests in Land and Housing Development, Peri-urban and Inner-city Development, and Mega-projects.
• Dr Gemma Hemming, Journals Commissioning Lead, Emerald Publishing, UK, provided a publisher perspective.
• Prof. Suzanne Wilkinson, Associate Dean Research Professor of Construction Management School of Built Environment Massey University, New Zealand
• Prof. Rajib Shaw, Professor Graduate School of Media and Governance Keio University, Japan
• Associate Professor Thayaparan Gajendran, Deputy Head of School- Research (School of Architecture and Built Environment) Assistant Dean – Work Integrated Learning (WIL) (College of Engineering, Science and Environment) The University of Newcastle, Australia
All resources developed for the workshop can be accessed at http://deltaproject.info/publication-workshop/.
5. Conference presentations
- In September 2021, a research poster on ‘improving local capacities for Tsunami early warning’ was presented at the 5th Global summit of GADRI. The research findings were based on an in-depth systematic and narrative review. The 5th Global Summit of GADRI was organised virtually in the summer of 2021 (https://gadri.net/summit/).
- A research presentation on the desk study findings was made at the APRU Multi-Hazard Symposium in November 2021 (https://drrc.ui.ac.id/apru2021/). The presentation was based on the in-depth systematic and narrative review.
- An abstract and presentation was delivered by Dr Nuwan Dias at the Symposium on Improving preparedness and response for multi-hazard scenarios in the midst of a pandemic, under sub-theme 6: Early warning and risk communication strategies on multi-hazard scenarios for concurrent and cascading hazards. The symposium was held in March 2022 in Colombo.
6. Research papers
Perera UTG, De Zoysa C, Abeysinghe AASE, Haigh R, Amaratunga D, Dissanayake R. A Study of Urban Planning in Tsunami-Prone Areas of Sri Lanka. Architecture. 2022; 2(3):562-592. https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2030031
The related study, but focused on urban planning strategies in Indonesia, will be published in a separate article, entitled: Strategies for urban planning in Tsunami prone areas of Indonesia; a synthesis using document review and expert opinion. The first step in this research involved content analysis of national and local planning instruments developed such National Spatial Plan, National Mid-term Development Plan, Jabodetabek-Punjur Spatial Plan, Spatial Plan of Pangandaran Regency and Padang City, Mid-Term Development Plan of Pangandaran Regency and Padang City, Coastal Area and Small Islands Zoning Plan of Pangandaran Regency and Padang City. An analysis and detailed comparison of the tsunami mitigation policies proposed in the country during the period under review reveals to what extent local planning documents incorporated regulations, risk zone planning, and evacuation strategies to enhance tsunami resilience in coastal cities. The second research step entailed conducting semi-structured interviews with experts to collect deep data and a contextualised understanding of (1) tsunami warnings and evacuations during the particular tsunami events, (2) risk zone planning, relocation, and other tsunami mitigation policies proposed and implemented during each reconstruction phase, and (3) community involvement in the planning process too. The ITB team carried out a semi-structured interviews with Development Planning Agency, Public Works and Spatial Planning Agency of Padang City and Regional Disaster Management Agency, as the leading actors in disaster management efforts in the country. A copy of this article will be forwarded to BEIS upon acceptance for publication.
6.2 Under development
This article reports on the first phase of the project, which aimed to develop a better understanding of tsunami early warning at the local level. This stage of the study provides a state-of-the-art review, drawing upon published international studies and guidance published between 2005 and 2021. The review informs the development of a conceptual framework that provides a basis for further empirical investigations in Indonesia.
Key issues addressed by the paper include: the key actors, the stages or pathways of early warning, and the communication channels including the role of social media. The final questions attempt to draw out the current gaps and potential strategies to improve localisation of tsunami early warning. In addition, the analysis also explores the characteristics of the literature, such as the geographical focus of published work, the year of publication and the approach of the individual studies. The paper reflects the first phase of output 2 (building a downstream capacity assessment framework.
This article reports on the results of fieldwork carried out in Bali during 2021/22, and compares the state of tsunami warning to previous studies from 2006, revealing important insights into how early warning has developed over the period, achievements to date, but also gaps that remain. This paper addresses elements of output 1 (social network analysis), output 2 (case study in cities / Bali), and output 3 expert interviews.
This article reports on the results of fieldwork carried out in Padang during 2021/22, and compares the findings to previous studies, including those revealed in the project’s systematic review and other studies in Bali. The collective findings are used to present an overall conceptual framework that sets out the key dimensions of effective tsunami warning at the local level. This paper addresses elements of output 1 (social network analysis), output 2 (case study in cities / Padang), and output 3 (expert interviews).
A briefing paper, targeting policy makers in Indonesia and other countries facing a threat from tsunami, summarises the key findings to emerge from across the project, including insights from the systematic review, and fieldwork in Bali and Padang, which culminate in a capacity assessment framework based on the case studies. The paper sets out the current state of tsunami early warning, drawing upon the underpinning research from the other scientific papers published through the project, as well as recommendations for future work. The final version will be forwarded to BEIS.